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Incoterm - CIF - VERTEX

Incoterm - C.I.F. - VERTEX




CIP – Carriage and Insurance Paid to (named place of destination)[edit]

The containerized transport/multimodal equivalent of CIF. Seller pays for carriage and insurance to the named destination point, but risk passes when the goods are handed over to the first carrier."

"CIF – Cost, Insurance and Freight (named port of destination)[edit]

Exactly the same as CFR except that the seller must in addition procure and pay for the insurance. Maritime transport only. freight"

VERTEX FOB (shipping)


FOB (shipping)

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FOB is an acronym for "free on board", meaning that the buyer pays for transportation of the goods.[1] Specific terms of the agreement can vary widely, in particular which party (buyer or seller) pays for which shipment and loading costs, and/or where responsibility for the goods is transferred. The last distinction is important for determining liability or risk of loss for goods lost or damaged in transit from the seller to the buyer. International shipments typically use "FOB" as defined by the Incoterm standards, where it always stands for "free on board". Domestic shipments within the United States or Canada often use a different meaning, specific to North America, which is inconsistent with the Incoterm standards.

North American FOB usage corresponds to Incoterms approximately as follows:

North America Incoterm
FOB shipping point or FOB shipping point, freight collect FCA shipping point
FOB shipping point, freight prepaid CPT destination
FOB destination or FOB destination, freight prepaid DAP destination
FOB destination, freight collect No Incoterm equivalent


Under the Incoterms 2010 standard published by the International Chamber of Commerce, FOB stands for "Free On Board", and is always used in conjunction with a port of loading.[2] Indicating "FOB port" means that the seller pays for transportation of the goods to the port of shipment, plus loading costs. The buyer pays cost of marine freight transport, insurance, unloading, and transportation from the arrival port to the final destination. The passing of risks occurs when the goods are loaded on board at the port of shipment. The criteria passing the ship's rail is no longer in use having been canceled by Incoterms 2010.

For example, "FOB Vancouver" indicates that the seller will pay for transportation of the goods to the port of Vancouver, and the cost of loading the goods on to the cargo ship (this includes inland haulage, customs clearance, origin documentation charges, demurrage if any, origin port handling charges, in this case Vancouver). The buyer pays for all costs beyond that point (including unloading). Responsibility for the goods is with the seller until the goods are loaded on board the ship. Once the cargo is on board, the buyer assumes the risk.

Due to potential confusion with domestic North American usage of "FOB", it is recommended that the use of Incoterms be explicitly specified, along with the edition of the standard.[3][4] For example, "FOB New York (Incoterms 2000)". Incoterms apply primarily to international trade, not domestic trade within a given country.

This use of "FOB" originated in the days of sailing ships. When the ICC first wrote their guidelines for the use of the term in 1936,[5] the ship's rail was often still relevant, as goods were often passed over the rail by hand. In the modern era of containerization, the term "ship's rail" is somewhat archaic for trade purposes. The standards have noted this. Incoterms 1990 stated, "When the ship's rail serves no practical purpose, such as in the case of roll-on/roll-off or container traffic, the FCA term is more appropriate to use." Incoterms 2000 adopted the wording, "If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship's rail, the FCA term should be used."[2] "

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